Preferred Name

Basal ganglia

Definitions

The basal ganglia comprise two principal input nuclei, the striatum and the subthalamic nucleus (STN), and two principal output nuclei, the substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr) and the internal globus pallidus (GPi) (primates) which in cats and rodents is known as the entopeduncular nucleus ( Figure 1). The external globus pallidus (GPe) is principally an intrinsic structure that receives most of its afferents from, and provides efferent connections to other basal ganglia nuclei. Finally, dopaminergic neurones in substantia nigra (pars compacta) (SNc) and the adjacent ventral tegmental area (VTA) provide other basal ganglia nuclei, principally the striatum, with important modulatory signals. from Peter Redgrave (2007) [Basal Ganglia](http://www.scholarpedia.org/article/Basal_ganglia) - [Scholarpedia](http://www.scholarpedia.org/Scholarpedia) The basal ganglia (or basal nuclei) comprise multiple subcortical nuclei, of varied origin, in the brains of vertebrates, which are situated at the base of the forebrain. Basal ganglia nuclei are strongly interconnected with the cerebral cortex, thalamus, and brainstem, as well as several other brain areas. The basal ganglia are associated with a variety of functions including: control of voluntary motor movements, procedural learning, routine behaviors or "habits" such as bruxism, eye movements, cognition and emotion. [Basal Ganglia - Wikipedia](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Basal_ganglia)

ID

http://uri.neuinfo.org/nif/nifstd/birnlex_826

Obsolete

true

createdDate

2006-10-10

definition

The basal ganglia comprise two principal input nuclei, the striatum and the subthalamic nucleus (STN), and two principal output nuclei, the substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr) and the internal globus pallidus (GPi) (primates) which in cats and rodents is known as the entopeduncular nucleus ( Figure 1). The external globus pallidus (GPe) is principally an intrinsic structure that receives most of its afferents from, and provides efferent connections to other basal ganglia nuclei. Finally, dopaminergic neurones in substantia nigra (pars compacta) (SNc) and the adjacent ventral tegmental area (VTA) provide other basal ganglia nuclei, principally the striatum, with important modulatory signals. from Peter Redgrave (2007) [Basal Ganglia](http://www.scholarpedia.org/article/Basal_ganglia) - [Scholarpedia](http://www.scholarpedia.org/Scholarpedia) The basal ganglia (or basal nuclei) comprise multiple subcortical nuclei, of varied origin, in the brains of vertebrates, which are situated at the base of the forebrain. Basal ganglia nuclei are strongly interconnected with the cerebral cortex, thalamus, and brainstem, as well as several other brain areas. The basal ganglia are associated with a variety of functions including: control of voluntary motor movements, procedural learning, routine behaviors or "habits" such as bruxism, eye movements, cognition and emotion. [Basal Ganglia - Wikipedia](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Basal_ganglia)

deprecated

true

externallySourcedDefinition

subcortical masses of gray matter of the cerebrum, namely, the caudate nucleus, putamen, globus pallidus, amygdala, and clastrum; involved in initiating and directing voluntary movements. (CSP defintion of Basal Ganglia in UMLS).

Large subcortical nuclear masses derived from the telencephalon and located in the basal regions of the cerebral hemispheres. (MeSH definition of Basal Ganglia in UMLS).

hasBirnlexCurator

http://uri.neuinfo.org/nif/nifstd/readable/Maryann_Martone

http://uri.neuinfo.org/nif/nifstd/readable/Bill_Bug

hasCurationStatus

http://uri.neuinfo.org/nif/nifstd/readable/uncurated

label

Basal ganglia

modifiedDate

2006-10-10

nifID

_5.1_1.11.1.3

preferred label

Basal ganglia

prefixIRI

NIFSTD:birnlex_826

scope note

Basal_ganglia is placed in this root composite class since clearly many researchers consider mesencephalic structures - the Substantia_nigra in particular - to be a part of the Basal_ganglia proper. For instance, though the following MeSH definition of "Basal Ganglia Disorder" doesn't explicitly include the Substantia nigra, the nigra is in fact effected in these pathologies and it participates in the ganglionic circuitry affected by these pathologies: "Basal Ganglia Disease: Disease of the BASAL GANGLIA including the PUTAMEN; GLOBUS PALLIDUS; claustrum; AMYGDALA; and CAUDATE NUCLEUS. DYSKINESIAS (most notably involuntary movements and alterations of the rate of movement) represent the primary clinical manifestations of these disorders. Common etiologies include CEREBROVASCULAR DISEASE; NEURODEGENERATIVE DISEASES; and CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA. (MeSH - UMLS CUI C0004782)"

term replaced by

http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/UBERON_0010011

versionInfo

129824

subClassOf

http://uri.neuinfo.org/nif/nifstd/nlx_anat_20090509

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