Preferred Name

cerebellum

Synonyms

parencephalon

corpus cerebelli

infratentorial region

epencephalon-1

Definitions

Part of the metencephalon that lies in the posterior cranial fossa behind the brain stem. It is concerned with the coordination of movement[MESH]. A large dorsally projecting part of the brain concerned especially with the coordination of muscles and the maintenance of bodily equilibrium, situated between the brain stem and the back of the cerebrum , and formed in humans of two lateral lobes and a median lobe[BTO]. Brain structure derived from the anterior hindbrain, and perhaps including posterior midbrain. The cerebellum plays a role in somatic motor function, the control of muscle tone, and balance[ZFA]. from Scholarpedia - [Cerebellum](http://www.scholarpedia.org/article/Cerebellum) The cerebellum derives its name as a diminutive of the word "cerebrum". This is particularly explicit in German, where the cerebellum is called Kleinhirn ("small brain"). This structure, present in all vertebrates, occupies a position immediately behind the tectal plate and straddles the midline as a bridge over the fourth ventricle. In addition, it is the only region of the nervous system to span the midline without interruption. Technically, the output of the cerebellum is exclusively inhibitory through the Purkinje neurons onto the cerebellar nuclei, but the cerebellar nucleus exerts both excitatory and inhibitory influences, on the thalamus and on the Inferior Olive, respectively (Ruigrok and Voogd, 1995). The cerebellum has undergone enormous elaboration throughout phylogeny, in fact, more so than any other region of the central nervous system (CNS), but has maintained its initial neuronal structure, almost invariant. Thus, its size but not its wiring has changed with CNS evolution. As an example, the cerebellar cortex in a frog has an area approximately 12 mm2 that is, 4 mm wide (in the mediolateral direction) and 3 mm long (in the rostrocaudal direction). In humans, the cerebellar cortex is a single continuous sheet with an area of 500 cm2 (1,000 mm long and 50 mm wide) . This is 4 x 10^3 times more extensive than that of a frog (Braitenberg & Atwood, 1958). The increase in cortical extent has resulted in folding into very deep folia (Figure 2), allowing this enormous surface to be packed into a volume of 6 cm x 5 cm x 10 cm. Because the cerebellar cortex extends mainly rostro-caudally, most of the foldings occur in that direction. Part of the metencephalon that lies in the posterior cranial fossa behind the brain stem. It is concerned with the coordination of movement[MESH]. A large dorsally projecting part of the brain concerned especially with the coordination of muscles and the maintenance of bodily equilibrium, situated between the brain stem and the back of the cerebrum , and formed in humans of two lateral lobes and a median lobe[BTO]. Brain structure derived from the anterior hindbrain, and perhaps including posterior midbrain. The cerebellum plays a role in somatic motor function, the control of muscle tone, and balance[ZFA].

ID

http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/UBERON_0002037

contributes to morphology of

http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/UBERON_0001895

database_cross_reference

http://braininfo.rprc.washington.edu/centraldirectory.aspx?ID=643

UMLS:C1268981

NCIT:C12445

EFO:0000327

DHBA:10656

GAID:595

MESH:D002531

OpenCyc:Mx4rvl1eipwpEbGdrcN5Y29ycA

MAT:0000110

VHOG:0000024

BTO:0000232

BM:CB

EHDAA2:0000232

UMLS:C0007765

EV:0100293

CALOHA:TS-0125

BIRNLEX:1489

BAMS:Cb

TAO:0000100

MBA:512

EMAPA:17787

AAO:0010485

FMA:67944

MIAA:0000110

HBA:4696

MA:0000198

ZFA:0000100

BAMS:CB

XAO:0003098

http://www.snomedbrowser.com/Codes/Details/180924008

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cerebellum

http://linkedlifedata.com/resource/umls/id/C0007765

http://linkedlifedata.com/resource/umls/id/C1268981

http://braininfo.rprc.washington.edu/centraldirectory.aspx?ID=643

definition

Part of the metencephalon that lies in the posterior cranial fossa behind the brain stem. It is concerned with the coordination of movement[MESH]. A large dorsally projecting part of the brain concerned especially with the coordination of muscles and the maintenance of bodily equilibrium, situated between the brain stem and the back of the cerebrum , and formed in humans of two lateral lobes and a median lobe[BTO]. Brain structure derived from the anterior hindbrain, and perhaps including posterior midbrain. The cerebellum plays a role in somatic motor function, the control of muscle tone, and balance[ZFA]. from Scholarpedia - [Cerebellum](http://www.scholarpedia.org/article/Cerebellum) The cerebellum derives its name as a diminutive of the word "cerebrum". This is particularly explicit in German, where the cerebellum is called Kleinhirn ("small brain"). This structure, present in all vertebrates, occupies a position immediately behind the tectal plate and straddles the midline as a bridge over the fourth ventricle. In addition, it is the only region of the nervous system to span the midline without interruption. Technically, the output of the cerebellum is exclusively inhibitory through the Purkinje neurons onto the cerebellar nuclei, but the cerebellar nucleus exerts both excitatory and inhibitory influences, on the thalamus and on the Inferior Olive, respectively (Ruigrok and Voogd, 1995). The cerebellum has undergone enormous elaboration throughout phylogeny, in fact, more so than any other region of the central nervous system (CNS), but has maintained its initial neuronal structure, almost invariant. Thus, its size but not its wiring has changed with CNS evolution. As an example, the cerebellar cortex in a frog has an area approximately 12 mm2 that is, 4 mm wide (in the mediolateral direction) and 3 mm long (in the rostrocaudal direction). In humans, the cerebellar cortex is a single continuous sheet with an area of 500 cm2 (1,000 mm long and 50 mm wide) . This is 4 x 10^3 times more extensive than that of a frog (Braitenberg & Atwood, 1958). The increase in cortical extent has resulted in folding into very deep folia (Figure 2), allowing this enormous surface to be packed into a volume of 6 cm x 5 cm x 10 cm. Because the cerebellar cortex extends mainly rostro-caudally, most of the foldings occur in that direction.

delineatedBy

http://api.brain-map.org/api/v2/data/Structure/512

depicted by

http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/Cerebellum_NIH.png

develops_from

http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/UBERON_0006215

dubious_for_taxon

http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/NCBITaxon_117569

external_definition

Dorsal part of the hindbrain that coordinates muscle movement, posture, and balance.[AAO]

Specialized brain region derived from the dorsal metencephalon (anterior hindbrain, and perhaps including posterior midbrain) and becoming distinctive late in the segmentation period. Kimmel et al, 1995.[TAO]

external_ontology_notes

almost all AOs agree that the cerebellum is part of the hindbrain (sometimes specifically part of the metencephalon, which, when present, is part of the hindbrain). However, ABA has cerebellum and brain stem as partof siblings, with the hindbrain part of the brainstem

has_broad_synonym

infratentorial region

has_exact_synonym

epencephalon-1

has_obo_namespace

uberon

has_related_synonym

parencephalon

corpus cerebelli

has_relational_adjective

cerebellar

homology_notes

However, although the lamprey possesses a region comparable to the cerebellum and display expression of LjFgf8/17 at the MHB (midbrain hindbrain boundary), it does not have Purkinje cells and cerebellar nuclei, as well as components of the rhombic lip-derived cerebellar and pre-cerebellar systems. It is noteworthy that the latter structures require specific expression of Pax6 in the rhombic lip of the gnathostome hindbrain. Interestingly, the lamprey rhombic lip does not express Pax6. Thus, it is tempting to speculate that in vertebrate evolution the rostral hindbrain is incapable of differentiating into the cerebellum before the co-option of Pax6 in that region. In other words, cerebellum has been brought about as an evolutionary innovation in gnathostomes, based on exaptation of MHB, rhombic lip, and some regulatory gene expression already present in the vertebrate common ancestor.[well established][VHOG]

id

UBERON:0002037

in_subset

http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/uberon/core#uberon_slim

http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/uberon/core#pheno_slim

http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/uberon/core#efo_slim

http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/uberon/core#vertebrate_core

label

cerebellum

notation

UBERON:0002037

part_of

http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/UBERON_0001895

prefixIRI

UBERON:UBERON_0002037

UBERON:0002037

prefLabel

cerebellum

present_in_taxon

http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/NCBITaxon_117569

taxon_notes

The absence of a cerebellum in hagfishes and lampreys appears to be the only exception [to the rule that vertebrates possess the same number of brain divisions]. Both hagfishes and lampreys do possess a thin band of cells located medial to the lateral line centers of the medulla (Ronan and Northcutt, 1998), which has been interpreted as a primitive cerebellum (Larsell, 1967), but more recent experimental studies (Kishida et al., 1987; Weigle and Northcutt, 1998) fail to support Larsell's claim[http://icb.oxfordjournals.org/content/42/4/743.full]

textual definition

Part of the metencephalon that lies in the posterior cranial fossa behind the brain stem. It is concerned with the coordination of movement[MESH]. A large dorsally projecting part of the brain concerned especially with the coordination of muscles and the maintenance of bodily equilibrium, situated between the brain stem and the back of the cerebrum , and formed in humans of two lateral lobes and a median lobe[BTO]. Brain structure derived from the anterior hindbrain, and perhaps including posterior midbrain. The cerebellum plays a role in somatic motor function, the control of muscle tone, and balance[ZFA].

treeView

http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/UBERON_0006215

http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/UBERON_0001895

subClassOf

http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/UBERON_0002616

http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/UBERON_0010314

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Delete Mapping To Ontology Source
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